In Ant-Man's opening scene, Michael Douglas's Hank Pym strides into S.H.I.E.L.D. headquarters to tender his resignation. Well, that's not 100 percent right — it's definitely Hank Pym, and it's definitely S.H.I.E.L.D. headquarters, but it's not quite Michael Douglas, at least as we know him in 2015. The scene takes place in 1989, and the Douglas that walks into the room is the spitting image of the actor during his Wall Street and Fatal Attraction days. How did the film undo 25 years of time's cruel work? We were lucky enough to talk to Trent Claus of Lola VFX, the company that de-aged Douglas for Marvel, to learn the scene's secrets.
In the world of visual effects, Lola specializes in "visual cosmetics," which can range from secret touch-ups to complete physical transformations. As Claus puts it, the company can make anyone "older, younger, thinner [or] fatter." Lola first got into de-aging in their work for X-Men: The Last Stand, but their breakout moment came on The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, where they handled the aging and de-aging of Brad Pitt and Cate Blanchett's characters. Since then, they've had a long relationship with Marvel — Lola created skinny Chris Evans for the first Captain America film — and they were brought on fairly early in the production process to handle the de-aging work in Ant-Man's prologue.
The heads-up helped. "They asked for advice for what they could do when they were shooting that could aid us, which is very much appreciated," said Claus. "We put our two cents in, and they did everything we needed right from the start." Mostly that meant no anti-aging makeup on the 70-year-old Douglas (it messes with the way light works on the face) and a sprightly stand-in to give a reference point for the way young skin looked on the S.H.I.E.L.D. set.
From there, Lola got to work. Unlike on previous transformations, they had a plenty of reference material — multiple feature films' worth — of exactly what a 45-year-old Michael Douglas would look like. To hear Claus tell it, this was both a blessing and a curse. "It helped us a lot to have that reference," he said, "but it made us work harder, because the audience already knew what he looked like at that age. There wasn't a whole lot of leeway."
The only solution, they decided, was to view as much of Douglas's late-'80s oeuvre as possible, as closely as possible. They found themselves watching Wall Street not only for its dramatic indictment of corporate greed, but also for its great shots of Douglas's middle-aged wrinkles. "What’s really important is the way his face moves as he speaks, the way that the muscles in the face have changed over time, the way the skin reacts to those muscles. To sell the effect you have to look at the way [the face] looks in motion."
De-aging an actor is essentially giving them a digital face-lift, and Lola's team do the same work with digital composites a skilled plastic surgeon would do with a scalpel. The two professions turn out to have similar ways of talking. "The most obvious thing is that the skin along the jaw in most people tends to get lower and lower and sag a little bit as you get older. Particularly around the throat and the Adam's Apple area, you’ll get a build-up of extra skin down there," Claus told me. "One thing we’ll have to do to de-age someone is restore that elasticity and try to not only to remove the excess skin, but pull it back up to where it once was."
Our cheeks thin out and sink as we get older, so Lola also added a little more fat to the middle of Douglas's cheeks. And since human ears and noses never stop growing, they also had to shrink Douglas's back to their 1980s' sizes, as well as remove some of his ear wrinkles. Then it came time to restore what Claus called Douglas's "youthful glow," adding shine to his skin and hiding the blood vessels in his nose.
The result in the finished film is eerie in its accuracy; it's as if Douglas stepped into the room straight off the cover of Time. There's still a telltale digital sheen, but the de-aging effect has come a long way in the nine years since X3. I asked Claus if this was because technology had gotten better. "It really hasn't changed," he said. "The basic tools have been the same for decades. It's more the experience of the artists that are actually doing the work." In other words, their skills have grown over time — just like their ears.